Pharm Sci. 2016;22(4):296-301 doi: 10.15171/PS.2016.46
Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Oil and Extracts of Bunium
persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch.: Wild and Cultivated Fruits
Background: Fruits of Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch
(Apiaceae) has been used as spice, anti-flatulence and antiseptic agent for
many years. In recent years the wild resources of the plant have been
threatened by extinction. Domestication of such a plant saves its genetic
resources from depletion. However, concerns remain about the possible changes
due to development of chemotypes and changes in the composition and biological
and pharmacological potentials.
Methods: Analyses of essential oils from fruits of wild and
cultivated types was performed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy.
Antimicrobial assessment was done by agar diffusion method
Results: The main compounds of both oils were included
γ-terpinene (30.77% and 27.57%), cuminaldehyde (20.49% and 21.1%), ρ-cymene
(20.1% and 18.32%) and γ-terpinen-7-al (8.29% and 7.84%) respectively.
Analytical results of both tested oils exhibited very close similarities in
major compounds, whereas some differences in their percentages were observed.
In vitro antimicrobial evaluation of volatile oils, total extract and the
resultant fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli
and Candida albicans demonstrated some similarities and differences.
Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of wild grown fruits essential oils
ranged between 0.375-1.5 mg/ml, while those of cultivated one were 0.75-6.25
mg/ml. All extracts and fractions showed similarly minor antibacterial
potential while anti-Candida albicans activity was much remarkable with
MICs calculated 2.5-5 mg/ml for cultivated and 5 mg/ml for wild grown extracts
and fractions. Conclusion: In
conclusion, despite the substantial similarities in composition of both oils,
the alteration in antimicrobial results may be caused by variety in
concentration of major and minor compounds and their synergism or antagonism in