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Health Promotion Perspectives
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Article History
Submitted: 18 May 2015
Accepted: 15 Aug 2015
First published online: 19 Aug 2015

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Health Promot Perspect. 2015;5(3):225-230 doi: 10.15171/hpp.2015.027
PMID:26634201        PMCID:PMC4667262

The Association between the Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium Status among University Students: A Case Control Study

Original Research

Afsaneh Saeedian Kia 1, Reza Amani 2 * , Bahman Cheraghian 3

1 International Arvand Medical Sciences University, Abadan, Iran
2 Department of Nutrition, Diabetes Research Center, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology, Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran

See erratum "The association between the risk of premenstrual syndrome and vitamin D, calcium, and magnesium status among university students: a case control study [Health Promotion Perspectives, 2015, 5(3), 225-230]"


Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of major health problems in childbearing age women. Herein, we compared the nutritional status of vitamin D, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in young students affected by PMS with those of normal participants.

Methods: This study was conducted on 62 students aged 20‒25 yr in the city of Abadan (31 PMS cases and 31 controls). All participants completed four or more crite­ria according to the Utah PMS Calendar 3. Age, height, body mass index (BMI), serum Ca, Mg and vitamin D levels and a 24-hour food recall questionnaire were recorded.

Results: Vitamin D serum levels were lower than the normal range in the two groups. The odds ratios (CI 95%) of having PMS based on serum Ca and Mg concentrations were 0.81(0.67 – 0.89) and 0.86 (0.72 – 0.93), respectively. Based on serum levels, 855 of all participants showed vitamin D deficiency and more than one-third of the PMS cases were Mg deficient (P<0.05). In addition, there were signifi­cant differences in dietary intake of Ca and Mg, and potassium but not vitamin D in the two groups. Dietary intakes of Ca and Mg were quite below the recommendation in all participants.

Conclusion: Vitamin D, Ca and Mg nutritional status are compromised in PMS subjects. Because PMS is a prevalent health problem among young women, it merits more atten­tion regarding improvement of their health and nutritional status.

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