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Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
ISSN: 2228-5881      eISSN: 2251-7308  
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Article History
Submitted: 04 Feb 2015
Revised: 20 Aug 2015
Accepted: 25 Aug 2015
First published online: 30 Nov 2015

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Adv Pharm Bull. 2015;5(4):447-454 doi: 10.15171/apb.2015.061
PMID:26819915        PMCID:PMC4729339

A Review of Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Nanoparticles

Review Article

Javad Khalili Fard 1,2,3,4, Samira Jafari 4,5, Mohammad Ali Eghbal 2,3 *

1 Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
2 Biotechnology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.
4 Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.
5 Department of Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran.



Abstract
In recent decades, the use of nanomaterials has received much attention in industrial and medical fields. However, some reports have mentioned adverse effects of these materials on the biological systems and cellular components. There are several major mechanisms for cytotoxicity of nanoparticles (NPs) such as physicochemical properties, contamination with toxic element, fibrous structure, high surface charge and radical species generation. In this review, a brief key mechanisms involved in toxic effect of NPs are given, followed by the in vitro toxicity assays of NPs and prooxidant effects of several NPs such as carbon nanotubes, titanium dioxide NPs, quantum dots, gold NPs and silver NPs.





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