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Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
ISSN: 2228-5881      eISSN: 2251-7308  
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Article History
Submitted: 14 Dec 2012
Revised: 11 Jan 2013
First published online: 07 Feb 2013

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Adv Pharm Bull. 2013;3(1):239-246 doi: 10.5681/apb.2013.039
PMID:24312842        PMCID:PMC3846051

Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

Original Research

Veni Bharti, Neeru Vasudeva * , Joginder Singh Dhuhan


Abstract
Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration). By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy.





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